Most developed countries have developed a comprehensive approach to waste water treatment. In most cases this involves a combination of conventional and advanced technologies. Here are some examples of waste water treatments:
Solid waste management and sewage treatment can be integrated in the same process by using separate mechanical, chemical, biological, or mechanical/biological equipment and processes. Solid wastes include materials that are not suitable for re-use such as pharmaceuticals, metals, batteries, electronics, asbestos, etc., and liquids wastes are those that cannot be used for further processing, e.g., food scraps, dairy products, and industrial waste.
A variety of procedures are available to remove all wastes from the water including reverse osmosis, distillation, chemical disinfection, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, carbon dioxide removal, etc. Some methods can be combined for maximum effect.
For the removal of organic and inorganic chemical contaminants, the method can involve chemical adsorption, solvent extraction, ion exchange, and adsorption-ion exchange. Chemical removal is best accomplished with adsorption-ion exchange in a closed-loop system. Other techniques for organic contamination include submicron filtration and distillation. In the case of the latter, high pressure is required to break down the solid material.
An effective solid waste management system that meets the specific needs of the company and its operations is needed. It should be cost-effective, provide reliable results, and be readily adapted to meet future operational needs. It should also have the capability to meet the challenges of various types of businesses and industries. The design should take into account the type of treatment equipment used, the size of the system, the volume of the treated water, and the type of wastes that need to be removed. The size and type of operation may also depend on how much solid waste is expected.
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